The nation’s leading forum for conservative and libertarian legal scholarship.

Vols. 13-19

Volumes 13 through 19 of the Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy.

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Volume 19, Number 3 Spring 1996

Symposium Group Rights, Victim Status, and the Law

The Eighth Annual Federalist Society Lawyers Convention

Opening Address How Should Society Handle Injustice? Alan L. Keyes p. 645

Panel I: Victimology, Regulation, and the Transformation of the Common Law Using Common Law Principles in Regulatory Schemes (With a Note on Victimology) Cass R. Sunstein p. 651

Regulatory Rent-Seekers in the Media, Bar, and Bureaucracy C. Boyden Gray p. 657

Self-Correction Mechanisms in the Regulatory System David C. Vladeck p. 661

Hope for the Tort System: Congressional Proposals for Reform Christopher Cox p. 667

Addresses Victims and Heroes in the Benevolent State Clarence Thomas p. 671

Welfare As a Moral Problem Gertrude Himmelfarb p. 685

Panel II: Accused as Victim—the Case of Criminal Law Victims and the Exclusionary Rule Daniel E. Lungren p. 695

Demystifying the Abuse Excuse: Is There One? Peter Arenella p. 703

Criminal Procedure: Moving from the Accused As Victim to the Accused Joseph D. Grano p. 711

Conservatives’ Selective Use of Race in the Law Randall L. Kennedy p. 719

Address Address: Individualism before Multiculturalism Glenn C. Loury p. 723

Panel III: Feminism, Multiculturalism, and the Law Women: An Uncertain Fit for the Multicultural Movement? Walter Berns p. 733

“I Want You:” Uncle Sam As Mr. Right Linda Chavez p. 739

From “Colorblind” White Supremacy to American Multiculturalism Jamin B. Raskin p. 743

Restructuring Work and Family Entitlements around Family Values Joan C. Wililams p. 753

Address The D.C. Circuit Task Force on Gender, Race, and Ethnic Bias: Political Correctness Rebuffed

Laurence H. Silberman p. 759

Panel IV: Affirmative Action—Moral Obligation and Practical Necessity, or the Road to Hell? The Real Problem Abigail Thernstrom p. 767

Affirmative Action Is No Civil Right Robert Woodson p. 773

Three Models of Affirmative Action Beneficiaries Thomas W. Merrill p. 779

Closing Address Improving Culture to End Racism: Closing Address Dinesh D’Souza p. 785

Article How Do the Courts Really Discover Unenumerated Fundamental Rights? Cataloguing the Methods of Judicial Alchemy David Crump p . 795

Book Review Utopia’s Law, Politics’ Constitution John C. Harrison 917

Recent Case The United States Court of Appeals, 1995

The Scope and Constitutionality of Judicial Review Under the Tunney Act: United States v. Microsoft Corp., 56 F.3d 1448 (D.C. Cir. 1995) 941

Volume 19, Number 2 Winter 1996

Symposium Originalism, Democracy, and the Constitution

The Fourteenth Annual National Student Federalist Society Symposium on Law and Public Poilcy—1995

Introductory Remarks Welcoming Remarks Robert W. Bennett p. 237

Introductory Remarks Calabresi, Steven G. p. 239

Panel I: Originalism and the Dead Hand Introduction Daniel D. Polsby p. 243

Dead Hand of the Architect Daniel A. Farber p. 245

Original Constitution and Our Origins McGinnis, John O. p. 251

Dead Hand of Constitutional Tradition Michael S. Moore p. 263

Dead Hand and Constitutional Amendment Lawrence G. Sager p. 275

Panel II: Constitutionalism and Originalism

Introduction Stephen Chapman p. 281

Integrity and Impersonality of Originalism Lillian R. BeVier p. 283

It’s Not Constitutionalism, It’s Judicial Activism Lino A. Graglia p. 293

Originalism As an “Ism” Jonathan R. Macey p. 301

Five Theses on Originalism Cass R. Sunstein p. 311

Panel III: What Is Originalism? Introduction: A View for the Legislative Branch David M. McIntosh p. 317

Originalism, Or Who Is Fred? Larry Alexander p. 321

A Text Is Just a Text Paul F. Campos p. 327

“Originalist” Values and Constitutional Interpretation Richard S. Kay p. 325

Defining Originalism Frederick Schauer p. 343

Panel IV: Is Originalism Possible? Normative Indeterminacy and the Judicial Role Introduction Edwin Meese III p. 347

Nonoriginalist Perspective on the Lessons of History Michael C. Dorf p. 351

Some Doubts on Constitutional Indeterminacy Richard A. Epstein p. 363

Normative Indeterminacy and the Problem of Judicial Role Michael J. Perry p. 375

Writing of the Constitution and the Writing on the Wall Steven D. Smith p. 391

Panel V: Is Originalism Possible? Historical Indeterminacy Introduction Stephen B. Presser p. 401

The Relevance of the Framers’ Intent Randy E. Barnett p. 403

Legal Indeterminacy: Its Cause and Cure Gary Lawson p. 411

Originalism and Indeterminacy Thomas B. McCaffee p. 429

The Indeterminacy of Historical Evidence Suzanna Sherry p. 437

Panel VI: The Original Meaning of the Fourteenth Amendment Did the Fourteenth Amendment Incorporate the Bill of Rights Against States? Akhil Reed Amar p. 443

A Minimalist Approach to the Fourteenth Amendment Earl M. Maltz p. 451

The Originalist Case for Brown v. Board of Education

Michael W. McConnell p. 457

Conservatives v. Originalism Jeffrey Rosen p. 465

Panel VII: Alternatives to Originalism Introduction John Fund p. 475

Alternatives to Originalism? Frank H. Easterbrook p. 479

Political Function of Originalist Ambiguity Richard H. Fallon Jr. p. 487

The Limited Relevance of Originalism in the Actual Performance of Legal Roles Sanford Levinson p. 495

Bork v. Burke Thomas W. Merrill p. 509

Interpretivism and the Judicial Role in a Constitutional Democracy: Seeking an Alternative to Originalism Martin H. Redish p. 525

Article Truman, Korea, and the Constitution: Debunking the Imperial President Myth Robert F. Turner p. 533

Recent Developments The Supreme Court of the United States, 1994 Term

Tearing Down the Wall: Rosenberger v. Rector of the University of Virginia, 115 S. Ct. 2510 (1995) p. 587

Protecting Private Religious Speech in the Public Forum: Capitol Square Review & Advisory Board v. Pinette, 115 S. Ct. 2440 (1995) p. 608

The Precarious Position of Commercial Speech: Rubin v. Coors Brewing Co., 115 S. Ct. 1585 (1995) p. 612

Recent Cases The United States Court of Appeals, 1995

Good Friday Vacation as an Establishment of Religion: Metzl v. Leininger, 57 F.3d 618 (7th Cir. 1995) p. 627

Speaking in Tongues: Whose Rights at Stake? Yniguez v. Arizonans for Official English, 69 F.3d 920 (9th Cir. 1995) (en banc) p. 634

Volume 19, Number 1 Fall 1995

Volume Introduction Introduction to Volume Nineteen The Hon. Alex Kozinski p. 1

Articles Interpreting the Constitution: Is the Intent of the Framers Controlling? If Not, What Is? Boris I. Bittker p. 9

Construction Union Use of Environmental Regulation to Win Jobs: Cases, Impact, and Legal Challenges Herbert R. Northrup & Augustus T. White p. 55

The Impact of the Constitutional Revolution of 1937 on the Dormant Commerce Clause: A Case Study in the Decline of State Autonomy Earl M. Maltz p. 121

At Last, the Supreme Court Solves the Takings Puzzle Douglas W. Kmiec p. 147

Recent Developments The Supreme Court of the United States, 1994 Term

The Reemergence of the Commerce Clause as a Limit of Federal Power: United States v. Lopez, 115 S. Ct. 1624 (1995) p. 161

Federal Preculsion of State-Imposed Congressional Term Limits: U.S. Term Limits, Inc. v. Thornton, 115 S. Ct. 1842 (1995) p. 174

Constitutional Limits on Racial Redistricting: Miller v. Johnson, 115 S. Ct. 2475 (1995) p. 200

Suspicionless Drug Testing and the Fourth Amendment: Vermonia School District 47J v. Acton, 115 S. Ct. 2386 (1995) p. 209

Recent Cases The United States Court of Appeals, 1994-95

Bank Holding Companies and “The Business of Insurance:” Interpretations of McCarran-Ferguson in Owensboro National Bank v. Stephens, 44 F.3d 388 (6th Cir. 1994), and Barnett Bank v. Gallagher, 43 F.3d 631 (11th Cir. 1995) p. 271

Tilting the Table: Collective Bargaining After National Basketball Ass’n v. Williams, 45 F.3d 684 (2d Cir. 1995) p. 228

Volume 18, Number 3 Summer 1995

Articles Access Demands to Pyament Systems Joint Ventures David A. Balto p. 623

The Politics of Corporate Governance Stephen M. Bainbridge p. 671

Harnessing the Free Market: Reinsurance Models for FDIC Deposit Insurance Pricing Anna Kuzmik Walker p. 735

Games Civil Contemnors Play Linda S. Beres p. 795

Stranded Costs William J. Baumol & J. Gregory Sidak p. 835

Essay A Lawyer Lectures a Judge Raoul Berger p. 851

Comment Forbidden Favortism in the Government Accommodation of Religion: Grumet and the Case for Overturning Aguilar

Basilios E. Tsingos p. 867

Recent Developments The Supreme Court of the United States 1993 & 1994 Terms

The Ever More Complicated “Actual Innocence” Gateway to Habeas Review: Schlup v. Delo, 115 S. Ct. 851 (1995) p. 889

Federal Preemption of State Consumer fraud Regulation, American Airlines, Inc. v. Wolens, 115 S. Ct. 817 (1995) p. 903

The First Amendment and Cable Television: Turner Broadcasting System, Inc. v. FCC, 114 S. Ct. 2445 (1995) p. 916

The Increased Need for Stronger Anti-Child Pornography Statutes in the Wake of United States v. X-Citement Video, Inc., 115 S. Ct. 464 (1994) p. 929

Volume 18, Number 2 Spring 1995

Symposium Feminism, Sexual Distinctions, and the Law

The Thirteenth Annual National Federalist Society Symposium on Law and Public Policy—1994

Introductory Remarks Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and the Role of Interdisciplinary Studies Robert E. Scott p. 321

Panel I: What Is Feminist Legal Theory? Feminist Legal Theories Gary Lawson p. 325

Two Challenges for Feminist Thought Richard A. Epstein p. 331

Feminist Theory and Law Martha L. A. Fineman p. 349

Of Richard Epstein and Other Radical Feminists Mary Anne Case p. 369

Ideas Have Consequences Rosalie Silberman p. 409

Panel II: The Constitution on Sex Gender Discrimination and the Original Understanding Earl M. Maltz p. 415

The Proposed Equal Protection Fix for Abortion Law:

Reflections on Citizenship, Gender, and the Constitution Anita L. Allen p. 419

Thoughts from a “Real” Woman Lillian R. BeVier p. 457

Women and the Constitution Akhil Reed Amar p. 465

Panel III: Among Friends and Colleagues: Harassment, Sex Discrimination, and Rape The Promise and Problems of Sexual Harassment Litigation J. Harvie Wilkinson III p. 475

Unfree Speech Michael P. McDonald p. 479

Sexual Harassment: Ideology or Law? George Rutherglen p. 487

Panel IV: Feminism, Children and the Family Introduction Laurence Silberman p. 501

Feminism, Children and the Family Elizabeth Fox-Genovese p. 503

The Housewife as Pariah F. Carolyn Graglia p. 509

Feminism and the Family Daniel R. Ortiz p. 523

Ozzie and Harriet Had it Right Daniel D. Polsby p. 531

Panel V: Women, Rational Choice, and Sexual Strategies Evolution and Human Mating David M. Buss p. 537

Bargaining and Gender Carol M. Rose p. 547

Beyond “Having it All” Jennifer Roback Morse p. 565

Essay Defending the Wall: Maintaining Church/State Separation in America Arlen Specter p. 575

Recent Developments

The Supreme Court of the United States, 1993 Term Dolan and the “Rough Proportionality” Standard: Taking its Toll on Loretto’s Bright Line: Dolan v. City of Tigard, 114 S. Ct. 2309 (1994) p. 591

Implied Liability Under § 10(b) of the Securities Act of 1934: Central Bank v. First Interstate Bank, 114 S. Ct. 1439 (1994) p. 603

Community Aesthetics and Speech Regulation: City of Ladue v. Gilleo, 114 S. Ct. 2038 (1994) p. 612

Volume 18, Number 1 Fall 1994

Articles Are Congressional Term Limits Constitutional? Daniel Hays Lowenstein p. 1

The “Presumption of Constitutionality” Doctrine and the Rehnquist Court: A Lethal Combination for Individual Liberty David M. Burke p. 73

Etiquette Tips: Some Implications of “Process Federalism” Calvin R. Massey p. 175

The Case for Public Single-Sex Education Kristin S. Caplice p. 227

Book Review The Partial Constitution or the Sunstein Constitution? David B. Rivkin, Jr. p. 293

Volume 17, Number 3 Summer 1994

Symposium on Presumptions and Burdens of Proof Annual Institute for Humane Studies Law and Philosophy Issue

Foreword: The Power of Presumptions Randy E. Barnett p. 613

How Presumptions Should Be Allocated Burdens of Proof, Uncertainty and Ambiguity in Modern Legal Discourse Ronald J. Allen p. 627

Civility and the Burden of Proof Dale A. Nance p. 647

Presumptions and Transcendentalism You Prove It! Why Should I? Lawrence B. Solum p. 691

Defrocking the Courts: Resolving “Cases or Controversies,” Not Announcing Transcendental Truths Mark D. Rosen p. 715

The Enlightenment of Dialectics: Strategies Involved in Burdens of Proof Gregory M. Klass & Gustavo Faigenbaum p. 735

Presumptive Reasoning Applied to Legal Doctrine Presumptions and Burdens of Proof as Tools for Legal Stability and Change Tamar Frankel p. 759

Default Presumptions in Legislation: Implementing Children;’s Services Richard H. Gaskins p. 779

Article The Persistence of Local Legal Culture: Twenty Years of Evidence From the Federal Bankruptcy Courts Teresa A. Sullivan, Elizabeth Warren & Jay Lawrence Westbrook p. 801

Note Unleashing RICO Matthew C. Blickensderfer p. 867

Recent Developments Refining the Revlon Doctrine’s Applicability to Changes of Control: Paramount Communications, Inc. v. QVC Network, Inc., 637 A.3d 34 (Del. 1993) p. 895

Gestational Surrogacy and the Meaning of “Mother”: Johnson v. Calvert, 852 P.2d 776 (Cal. 1993) p. 907

The Graham Doctrine as a Weapon Against Substantive Due Process: Albright v. Oliver, 114 S. C.t 807 (1994) p. 918

The Lack of a Judicial Policy Addressing Maternal Drug Abuse Cases: Commonwealth v. Welch, 864 S.W.2d 280 (Ky. 1993) p. 929

Volume 17, Number 2 Spring 1994

Articles Antitrust Immunity: State Action and Federalism, Petitioning and the First Amendment David McGowan & Mark A. Lemley p. 293

“Plain Meaning”: Justice Scalia’s Jurisprudence of Strict Statutory Construction Bradley C. Karkkainen p. 401

Qualified Immunity or Absolute Immunity? The Moral Hazards of Extending Qualified Immunity to Lower-Level Public Officials Evan J. Mandery p. 479

One Person, One Vote Revisited: Choosing A Population Basis to Form Political Districts Scot A. Reader p. 521

Comment After Gillette: An Analysis of Premium Product Markets Under the 1992 Merger Guidelines

David J. Dadoun & Diana L. Dietrich P. 567

Annual I.H.S.-Eberhard Student Writing Competition Winner A Contractual Approach to Data Privacy Steven A. Bibas p. 591

Volume 17, Number 1 Winter 1994

Symposium Judicial Decision-Making: The Role of Text, Precedent, and the Rule of Law

Introductory Remarks Judicial Decisionmaking and the Growth of the Law Robert C. Clark p. 1

Panel I: The Enterprise of Judging The Diversity of the Federalist Society Morris S. Arnold p. 5

Judicial Restraint: An Argument From Institutional Design Lillian R. BeVier p. 7

The Enterprise of Judging Russell K. Osgood p. 13

Panel II: Stare Decisis and Constitutional Meaning The Constitutional Case Against Precedent Gary Lawson p. 23

Reply to Lawson Charles Fried p. 35

On Lawson on Precedent Akhil Reed Amar p. 39

Precedent and the Necessary Externality of Constitutional Norms Frederick Schauer p. 45

Panel III: Text and History in Statutory Construction Introduction Paul R. Michel p. 57

Text, History, and Structure in Statutory Interpretation Frank H. Easterbrook p. 61

Dictionaries, Plain Meaning, and Context in Statutory Interpretation A. Raymond Randolph p. 71

Panel IV: Non-Legal Theory in Judicial Decisionmaking “Legal” Versus “Non-Legal” Theory Stephen F. Williams p. 79

Non-Legal Theory in Judicial Decisionmaking Richard H. Fallon, Jr. p. 87

Moral Philosophy and the Glen Ridge Rape Case Linda R. Hirshman p. 101

The Persuasive Influence of Economic Analysis on Legal Decisionmaking Jonathan R. Macey p. 107

Roundtable: The Supreme Court as a Political Institution Do Judges Have a Policy-Making Role in the American System of Government? Lino A. Graglia p. 119

The Judiciary: Conservatism’s Last Branch William Kristol p. 131

A Modest Proposal for a Political Court Thomas W. Merrill p. 137

The Supreme Court as a Partially Political Institution Stephen Reinhardt p. 149

Judges as Liars Martin Shapiro p. 155

Articles Expediting Impeachment: Removing Article III Federal Judges After Criminal Conviction Michael J. Broyde p. 157

The Federal Government and the Problem of Chinese Rights in the Era of the Fourteenth Amendment Earl M. Maltz p. 223

Recent Developments The Supreme Court of the United States, 1992 Term

Penalty Enhancement for Bias-Based Crimes: Wisconsin v. Mitchell, 113 S. Ct. 2194 (1993) p. 253

Animal Sacrifice and Equal Protection Free Exercise: Church of the Lukumi Babalu Aye, Inc. v. City of Hialeah, 113 S. Ct. 2217 (1993) p. 262

Federal Preemption of State Health and Safety Regulations: CSX Transportation, Inc. v. Easterwood, 113 S. Ct. 1732 (1993) p. 273

Equal Protection and Race Conscious Reapportionment: Shaw v. Reno, 113 S. Ct. 2816 (1993) p. 283

Volume 16, Number 3 Autumn 1993

Annual Institute for Humane Studies Law and Philosophy Issue

Symposium on Legal Formalism, 1992

Foreword: The Challenge of Legal Formalism Dennis M. Patteron p. 579

The Jurisprudence of Legal Formalism Ernest J. Weinrib p. 583

Professor Weinrib’s Formalism” The Not-So-Empty Sepulchre Stephen R. Perry p. 597

Legal Formalism from the Perspective of a Reasonable Law Professor Jean C. Love p. 627

Coherence and Formalism Ken Kress p. 639

Formalism and Practical Reason, or How to Avoid Seeing Ghosts in the Empty Sepulchre Ernest J. Weinrib p. 683

Notes The Constitutionality of the False Claims Act’s Qui Tam Provision James T. Blanch p. 701

Encouraging Product Safety Testing by Applying the Privilege of Self-Critical Analysis When Punitive Damages are Sought Paul B. Taylor p. 769

Recent Developments Judicial Review of Impeachment Proceedings: Nixon v. United States, 113 S. Ct. 732 (1993) p. 809

Reapportionment and the Dilution of Minority Voting Strength: Growe v. Emison, 113 S. Ct. 1075 (1993), and Voinovich v. Quilter, 113 S. Ct. 1149 (1993) p. 820

Civil Forfeiture and the Innocent Owner Defense: United States v. 92 Buena Vista Ave., 113 S. Ct. 1126 (1993) p. 835

Habeas Corpus and “Actual Innocence”: Herrera v. Collins, 113 S. Ct. 853 (1993) p. 848

Volume 16, Number 2 Spring 1993

Articles “Thirty Pieces of Silver” for the Rights of Your People: Irresistible Offers Reconsidered as a Matter of State Constitutional Law William Van Alstyne p. 303

Private Interbank Discipline David G. Oedel p. 327

Recent Misinterpretations of the Avoidable Consequences Rule: The “Duty” to Mitigate and Other Fictions Jeffrey K. Riffer & Elizabeth Barrowman p. 411

De-Federalizing American Indian Commerce: Toward a New Political Economy for Indian Country Raymond Cross p. 445

The Supreme Court and Coerced Confessions: Arizona v. Fulminate in Perspective William Gangi p. 493

Essay Manners Makyth Man: The Prose Style of Justice Scalia Charles Fried p. 529

Note The American Bar Association: An Appearance of Propriety David M. Leonard p. 537

Book Review Morton J. Horowitz, The Transformation of American Law, 1870-1960: The Crisis of Legal Orthodoxy Steven C. Papkin p. 565

Volume 16, Number 1 Winter 1993

Symposium The Legacy of the Federalist Papers

Foreword: Two Visions of the Nature of Man Steven G. Calabresi & Gary Lawson p. 1 Panel I Philosophical Foundations of The Federalist: The Nature of Law and the Nature of Man

The Federalist Papers: The Framers Construct an Orrery Harold H. Bruff p. 7

The Federalist Papers: From Practical Politics to High Principle Richard A. Epstein p. 13

Philosophical Foundations of The Federalist Papers: Nature of Man and Nature of Law Mary Ann Glendon p. 23 Panel II To Govern and Be Governed: The Federalist’s Vision of Representative Democracy

The Federalist Vision of a Representative Democracy James L. Ryan p. 33

Thoughts on the Federalist Vision of Representative Democracy as Viewed at the End of the Twentieth Century: How Have We Used the Legacy of The Federalist Papers? Jesse H. Choper p. 35

Remarks on The Federalist Number 10 David Epstein p. 43

Representative Democracy Jonathan R. Macey p. 49 Panel III Liberty and Constitutional Architecture

Liberty and Constitutional Architecture James L. Buckley p. 55

Constitutional Architecture John S. Baker, Jr. p. 59

Individual Liberty and Constitutional Architecture: The Founders’ Prompt Correction of Their Own Mistake Douglas Laycock p. 75

Liberty and Constitutional Architecture: The Rights-Structure Paradigm Geoffrey P. Miller p. 87 Debate The Federalist and the Contemporary Debate on Term Limits

Term Limitations: Breaking Up the Iron Triangle William Kristol p. 95

Some Arguments Against Congressional Term Limitations Nelso W. Polsby p. 101 Panel IV The Anti-Federalists after 200 Years: Pundits or Prophets?

Introduction Edwin Meese III p.109

Anti-Federalists, The Federalist Papers, and the Big Argument for Union

“Independent of Heaven Itself”: Differing Federalist and Anti-Federalist Perspectives on the Centralizing Tendency of the Federal Judiciary Charles J. Cooper p. 119

From Federal Union to National Monolith: Mileposts in the Demise of American Federalism Lino A. Graglia p. 129

Epilogue Federalism in the Twenty-First Century: Will States Exist? Pete du Pont p. 137

Articles Easing the Pressure on Pressure Groups: Toward a Constitutional Right to Lobby Andrew P. Thomas p. 149

A Multi-disciplinary Analysis of the Structure of Persuasive Arguments Paul T. Wanergin p. 195

The Economic Analysis of the Effect of No-Fault Divorce Law on the Divorce Rate Martin Zelder p. 241

Recent Developments Revealing the Inadequacy of the Public Forum Doctrine: International Society for Krishna Consciousness, Inc. v. Lee, 112 S. Ct. 2701 (1992) p. 269

Establishment of Religion and High School Graduation Ceremonies: Lee v. Weisman, 112 S. Ct. 2649 (1992) p. 279

The Beginning of the End of Peremptory Challenges: Georgia v. McCollum, 112 S. Ct. 2348 (1992) p. 287

The Dormant Commerce Clause and the Interstate Shipmen of Waste: Fort Gratiot Sanitary Landfill v. Michigan Department of Natural Resources, 112 S. Ct. 2019 (1992) p. 294

Volume 15, Number 3 Summer 1992

Annual Institute for Humane Studies Law and Philosophy Issue Symposium on Risks and Wrongs

University of San Diego, School of Law 1992

Foreword: Coleman and Corrective Justice Larry Alexander p. 621

Risks and Wrongs Jules L. Coleman p. 637

Rational Choice and the Law Jean Hampton p. 649

Jules and the Tortist David Gauthier p. 683

On the Domain and Market Rhetoric Margaret Jane Radin p. 711

The Relation Between Competition and Cooperation Steven Walt p. 733

Interpreting Torts, Explaining Contracts Alan Schwartz p. 747

The Primacy of Cooperation, Rational Bargaining, and an Economic Theory of Part of the Common Law Christopher T. Wonnell p. 771

Rational Bargaining Theory and Contract: Default Rules, Hypothetical Consent, the Duty to Disclose, and Fraud Randy E. Barnett p. 783

Efficiency and Rational Bargaining in Contractual Settings Richard Craswell p. 805

Why is Corrective Justice Just? Emily Sherwin p. 839

Jules Coleman and Corrective Justice in Tort Law: A Critique and Reformulation Kenneth W. Simons p. 849

Rational Contractarianism, Corrective Justice, and Tort Law Richard J. Arneson p. 889

The Mixed Conception of Corrective Justice Stephen R. Perry p. 917

Tort Law as a Comparative Institution: Reply to Perry Claire Finkelstein p. 939

Article Natural Rights and the Constitution: The Original “Original Intent” Terry Brennan p. 965

Recent Developments Limitations of the Voting Rights Act of 1965: Presley v. Etowah County Commission, 112 S. Ct. 820 (1992) p. 1031

The Confrontation Clause and Hearsay Statements by Child Victims of Sexual Abuse: White v. Illinois, 112 S. Ct. 736 (1992) p. 1040

The Eighth Amendment in Section 1983 Cases: Hudson v. McMillian, 112 S. Ct. 995 (1992) p. 1050

Criminal Anti-Profit Statutes and the First Amendment: Simon & Schuster, Inc. v. New York Crime Victims Bd., 112 S. Ct. 501 (1991) p. 1060

Volume 15, Number 2 Spring 1992

Symposium Free Market Environmentalism: The Role of the Market in Environmental Protection

Northwestern School of Law at Lewis and Clark College–1991

Free Market Versus Political Environmentalism Terry L. Anderson & Donald R. Leal p. 297

Debunking Wholesale Private Enforcement of Environmental Rights Edward Brunet p. 311

The Tragedy of the Commons, Part Two James E. Krier p. 325

Protecting the Environment from Orthodox Environmentalism James L. Huffman p. 349

The Fallacies of Free Market Environmentalism Michael C. Blumm p. 371

Behind Schedule and Over Budget: The Case of Markets, Water, and Environment Zach Willey p. 391

Property Rights, Environmental Resources, and the Future Richard L. Stroup & Sandra L. Goodman p. 427

A Property Rights Strategy for Protecting the Environment: A Comment on Stroup and Goodman Reuben C. Plantico p. 455

Bureaucratic Issues and Environmental Concerns: A Review of the History of Federal Land Ownership and Management Gary D. Libecap p. 467

Institutional Fantasylands: From Scientific Management to Free Market Environmentalism Peter S. Menell p. 489

Free Market Environmentalism: Wonder Drug or Snake Oil? William Funk p. 511

Escaping Environmental Feudalism Bruce Yandle p. 517 Article The Worst Should Go First: Deferral Registries in Asbestos Litigation Peter H. Schuck p. 541

I.H.S.-Eberhard Competition Winner

Back to the Future: The Supreme Court’s Retroactivity Jurisprudence Paul McGreal p. 595

Volume 15, Number 1 Winter 1992

Symposium The Bill of Rights After 200 Years Introductory Remarks

Coexistence and Co-Dependence: Conservatism and Civil Liberties Ralph K. Winter p. 1

What is the Federalist Society? Owen M. Fiss p. 5 Panel I Should the Bill of Rights Fully Protect Fundamental Freedoms?

Three Levels of Human Decisionmaking and the Protection of Fundamental Rights William P. Barr p. 11

The Untenable Case for an Unconditional Right to Shelter Robert C. Ellickson p. 17

The Indivisibility of Liberty Under the Bill of Rights Richard A. Epstein p. 35

What Constitutes Full Protection of Fundamental Freedoms? Nadine Strossen p. 43 Panel II How Effective Are Bills of Rights in Protecting Freedom and Civil Liberties?

How Effective Are Bills of Rights in Protecting Individual Freedoms? Theodore B. Olson p. 53

The Effectiveness of Bills of Rights John S. Baker, Jr. p. 55

Bills of Rights and Regression to the Mean Frank H. Easterbrook p. 71

The Role of Institutional Factors in Protecting Individual Liberties Thomas W. Merrill p. 85

The Bill of Rights in America and Central East Europe Herman Schwartz p. 93 Panel III The Bill of Rights and Governmental Structure: Republicanism and Mediating Institutions

Some Comments on “The Bill of Rights as a Constitution” Akhil Reed Amar p. 99

On Madison and Majoritarianism: A Response to Professor Amar Walter Berns p. 113

On the Myth of Written Constitutions: The Disappearance of Criminal Jury Trial p. 199

The Role of Government Under the Bill of Rights Kate Smith p. 129 Panel IV Judicial Interpretation of the Bill of Rights

Interpreting the Bill of Rights: A Dichotomy of Jurisprudential Approaches Edwin D. Williamson p. 139

Originalism and the Bill of Rights Stephen L. Carter p. 141

How Should Courts Interpret the Bill of Rights? Lino A Graglia p. 149

An Interpretivist Agenda Gary S. Lawson p. 157 Debate Should Congress Pass Legislation Overruling the Supreme Court’s Decision in the “Peyote Case,” Which Limits the Scope of the Free Exercise of Religion?

Religious Exercise: How Free? Edwin Meese III The Free Exercise Clause as a Rule About Rules John Harrison p. 169

Should Congress Pass Legislation Restoring the Broader Interpretation of Free Exercise of Religion? Michael W. McConnell p. 181

Articles Microenterprise: Human Reconstruction in America’s Inner Cities Lewis D. Solomon p. 191

The Misappropriation Theory of Insider Trading: A Legal, Economic, and Ethical Analysis Steven R. Salbu p. 223

Recent Developments The U.S. Supreme Court, 1990 Term

Inferring Actual Malice from Altered Quotations, Masson v. New Yorker Magazine, Inc., 111 S. Ct. 2419 (1991) p. 255

Confidential Media Sources and the First Amendment: Cohen v. Cowles Media Co., 111 S. Ct. 2513 (1991) p. 266

The Death Penalty and Victim Impact Evidence: Payne v. Tennessee, 11 S. Ct. 2597 (1991) p. 275

Proportionality and the Eight Amendment: Harmelin v. Michigan, 111 S. Ct. 2680 (1991) p. 284

Volume 14, Number 3 Summer 1991

Symposium on Law and Philosophy Sponsored by the Institute for Humane Studies

Foreword: Unenumerated Constitutional Rights and the Rule of Law Randy E. Barnett p. 615

Rules and the Rule of Law Frederick Schauer p. 645

The Gap Larry Alexander p. 695

Rules and Social Facts Jules L. Coleman p. 703

Comment: Legal Theory and the Role of Rules Ruth Gavison p. 727

Three Concepts of Rules Michael S. Moore p. 771

Positivism, I Presume? . . . Comments on Schauer’s “Rules and Rule of Law” Gerald J. Postema p. 797

Presumptive Positivism and Trivial Cases Margaret Jane Radin p.823

The Rules of Jurisprudence: A Reply Frederick Schauer p. 839

Note Footnote 6: Justice Scalia’s Attempt to Impose a Rule of Law on Substantive Due Process Gregory C. Cook p. 853

Recent Developments Extension to the Right to Counsel: Minnick v. Mississippi, 111 S. Ct. 486 (1990) p. 895

Regulation of Racist Speech: In re Welfare of R.A.V., 464 N.W.2d 507 (Minn. 1991) p. 903

Sanctioning Clients Under Rule 11: Business Guides Inc. v. Chromatic Communications Enterprises, Inc., 111 S. Ct. 922 (1991) p. 913

Section 1983 Claims Involving Commerce Clause Violations: Dennis v. Higgins, 111 S. Ct. 865 (1991) p. 924

Willfulness in Criminal Tax Cases: Cheek v. United States, 111 S. Ct. 604 (1991) p. 931

Volume 14, Number 2 Spring 1991

Symposium American Education: Legal and Policy Issues

What’s Wrong With Our Universities? Derek Bok p. 305

What’s Wrong With Our Universities? An Additional View A. Kenneth Pye p. 335

Achieving Our National Education Goals: Overarching Strategies Lauro F. Cavazos p. 355

Becoming Preeminent in Education: America’s Greatest Challenge Augustus F. Hawkins p. 367

The Value of Private Property in Education: Innovation, Production, and Employment Philip K. Porter & Michael L. Davis p. 397

What Is a Teacher’s Job?: An Examination of the Social and Legal Causes of Role Expansion and Its Consequences Judith H. Cohen p. 427

Is Local Control of the Schools Still a Viable Option? Charles F. Faber p. 447

Judicial Review of the Special Educational Program Requirements Under the Education for All Handicapped Children Act: Where Have We Been and Where Should We Be Going? Dixie Snow Huefner p. 483

School Finance Litigation: A New Wave of Reform Julie K. Underwood & William E. Sparkman p. 517

Academic Tenure: An Economic Critique Robert W. McGee & Walter E. Block p. 545

Leaving Them Speechless: A Critique of Speech Restrictions on Campus Kathryn Marie Dessayer & Arthur J. Burke p. 565

I.H.S.-Eberhard Competition Winner The Imbalance of Power and the Presidential Veto: A Case for the Item Veto Diane-Michele Krasnow p. 583

Volume 14, Number 1 Winter 1991

Symposium The Future of Civil Rights Law

Panel I What Are Civil Rights and to Whom Do They Belong?

Introduction: Civil Rights Politics as Interest-Group Politics Daniel B. Rodriguez p. 1

Some Observations on Broadly Construing Civil Rights Laws Charles A. Shanor p. 8

Women’s Rights and Social Wrongs Deborah L. Rhode p. 13

Civil Rights, Human Rights, Gay Rights: Minorities and the Humanity of the Different Evan Wolfson p. 21

Panel II The Role of Government in Closing the Socio-Economic Gap for Minorities

The Impact of Federal Civil Rights Policy on the Economic Status of Blacks John J. Donahue III p. 41

Addressing the Gap: Some Thoughts on the Government’s Role Jeffery Robinson p. 53

The Separation of Race and States Jennifer Roback p. 58

Panel III The Effects Test–Forced Quotas or Elimination of Racism?

Introduction: The Age of Ambiguity Lawrence J. Siskind p. 65

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964: From Prohibiting to Requiring Racial Discrimination in Employment Lino A. Graglia p. 68

Proving Discriminatory Intent in Constitutional Law Disparate Impact Cases William Cohen p. 78

: A Step Toward Eliminating Quotas in the American Workplace Charles J. Cooper p. 84

Competing Conceptions of “Racial Discrimination”: A Response to Cooper and Graglia Randall L. Kennedy p. 93

Panel IV The Limits on Judicial Power in Ordering Remedies

Civil Rights and Remedies Frank H. Easterbrook p. 103

The Limitlessness of Judicial Capacity to Right Constitutional Wrongs Michael H. Sussman p. 112

Judicial Remedies: Braking the Power to Fix It William Bradford Reynolds p. 120

Panel V New Frontiers in Civil Rights

Introduction: A Walk Through the Civil Rights World R. Gaull Silberman p. 129

On the Right to Be Sheltered from the “Right to Die” Hadley Arkes p. 131

Unfinished Business: A Civil Rights Strategy for America’s Third Century Clint Bolick p. 137

Civil Rights and the New Federal Judiciary: The Retreat from Fairness Stephen Reinhardt p. 142

Civil Rights, Economic Progress, and Common Sense Edwin Meese III p. 150

Panel VI Civil Rights, Civility, and Free Speech–What Takes Precedence?

Discriminatory Harassment and Free Speech Thomas C. Grey p. 157

Freedom Through Moral Education Alan L. Keyes p. 165

Articles The Exclusionary Rule and the Meaning of Separation of Powers Ruth W. Grant p. 173

The Social Costs of Populist Antitrust: A Public Choice Perspective Michael E. DeBow p. 205

Book Review The Clerisy of Power (review of Robert H. Bork, The Tempting of America: The Political Seduction of the Law) David B. Sentelle p. 225

Recent Developments The U.S. Supreme Court, 1989 Term

Abortion Parental Notification Statutes: Hodgson v. Minnesota, 110 S. Ct. 2926 (1990) and Ohio v. Akron Center for Reproductive Health, 110 S. Ct. 2972 (1990) p. 237

Constitutional Protection of the “Refusal-of-Treatment”: Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Department of Health, 110 S. Ct. 2841 (1990) p. 248

Equal Protection and Affirmative Action in Broadcast Licensing: Metro Broadcasting, Inc. v. Federal Communications Commission, 110 S. Ct 2997 (1990) p. 259

Federal Judicial Authority to Increase Local Taxes: Missouri v. Jenkins, 110 S. Ct. 2997 (1990) p. 270

Free Exercise of Religion: Employment Division, Department of Human Resources v. Smith, 110 S. Ct. 1595 (1990) p. 282

Political Patronage and the First Amendment: Rutan v. Republican Party of Illinois, 110 S. Ct. 2729 (1990) p. 292

Volume 13, Number 3 Summer 1990

Symposium on Law and Philosophy Sponsored by the Institute for Human Studies

Forward: Owning Ideas Dale A. Nance p. 757

What is Property? Boudewijn Bouckaert p. 775

Are Patents and Copyrights Morally Justified? The Philosophy of Property Rights and Ideal Objects Tom G. Palmer p. 817

Economic Incentives in Markets for Information and Innovation Ejan Mackaay p. 867

Patents, Copyrights , and Trademarks: Property or Monopoly? Roger E. Meiners & Robert J. Staaf p. 911

Note A “Frightful Political Dragon” Indeed: Why Constitutional Challenges Cannot Subdue the Gerrymander Allan B. Moore p. 949

Recent Developments Child Abuse and the Fifth Amendment: Baltimore City Department of Social Services v. Bouknight, 110 S. Ct. 900 p. 1017

Double Jeopardy, Due Process, and Evidence from Prior Acquittals: Dowling v. United States, 110 S. Ct. 668 (1990) p. 1027

Foreigners, Foreign Property, and the Fourth Amendment: United States v. Verdugo-Urquidez, 110 S. Ct. 1056 (1990) p. 1037

Legislative Immunity and City Councils: Spallone v. United States, 110 S. Ct. 625 (1990) p. 1049

Race-Based Peremptory Challenges and the Sixth Amendment: Holland v. Illinois, 110 S. Ct. 803 (1990) p. 1061

Volume 13, Number 2 Spring 1990

Symposium Labor & Employment Law in the 1990s

Forward Charles Fried The Railway Labor Act—Time for Repeal? Herbert R. Northup Unions, Politics and Public Policy: A (Somewhat) Revisionist Approach Dan. C. Heldman Will a More Interventionist NLRA Revive Organized Labor? Leo Troy Revolution Ahead: Communications Workers v. Beck

Rex H. Reed A Subjectivist Economic Analysis of Government-Mandated Employee Benefits Don Bellante & Philip K. Porter AIDS in the Workplace: Public and Corporate Policy Marian V. Heacock & Gregory P. Orvis

Note Age Discrimination, Wages, and Economics: What Judicial Standard? Peter H. Harris p. 715

Volume 13, Number 1 Winter 1990

Symposium Property: The Founding, the Welfare States, and Beyond

Panel I The Idea of Property

Introduction: Property and Justice Tom Bethell p. 1

Property and Necessity Richard A. Epstein p. 2

National Rights and Property Rights Ellen Frankel Paul p. 10

Debate Liability—The New “New Property”

Introduction: Of Profligacy, Piracy, and Private Property Alex Kozinski p. 17

Who Owns the Cherry Pit? Peter Huber p. 22

Tort Law and Deterrence: A Response to Dr. Huber Joseph A. Page p. 30

Panel II Property and the Constitution

Forty Acres and a Mule: A Republican Theory of Minimal Entitlements Akhil Reed Amar p. 37

Protecting Property—Law and Politics Charles Fried p. 44

Private Property and Public Office Jeremy Rabkin p. 54

Property as Politics Frederick Schauer p. 60

Panel III Regulation and Property–Allies or enemies?

Three Systems of Land-Use Control Robert C. Ellickson p. 67

The (Unlikely) Death for Property James E. Krier p. 75

Takings Analysis of Regulations Gale A. Norton p. 84

Privprop, Regprop, and Beyond Richard B. Stewart p. 91

Panel IV Intellectual and Informational Property Rights

Introduction: Property in Mass Media Law Lee C. Bollinger p. 97

Owning What Doesn’t Exist Stephen L. Carter p. 99

Intellectual Property is Still Property Frank H. Easterbrook p. 108

Property Rights in Inventions, Writings, and Marks Edmund W. Kitch p. 119

Panel V Ownership of Life

Surrogate Motherhood from the Perspective of Family Law Carl E. Schnierer p. 125

The Social Utility of Surrogacy Peter H. Schuck p. 132

Surrogacy, Slavery, and the Ownership of Life Anita L. Allen p. 139

The Personhood of Unborn Children: A First Principle in “Surrogate Motherhood” Analysis Walter M. Weber p. 150

Final Address Rights and Realism—Making the Constitution Work Edwin Meese III

Articles Regulation: Past Present, and Future Robert W. Hahn p. 167

Confirmation Ethics: President Reagan’s Nominees to the United States Supreme Court Steven Lubet p. 229

Note Judicial Restrain and the Non-Decision in Webster v. Reproductive Health Services

Christopher A Crain p. 263

Comments The Constitutionality of the Delaware Anti-Takeover States C. William Baxley p. 319

Judge versus Professor: Frank Easterbrook and the Wisconsin Anti-Takeover Statute Douglas L. Madsen p. 355

Recent Developments The U.S. Supreme Court, 1988 Term

Constitutional Limits to Punitive Damage Awards: Browning-Ferris Industries of Vermont, Inc. v. Kelco Disposal, Inc., 109 S. Ct. 2909 (1989) p. 369

Disparate Impact Doctrine Revisited: Wards Cove Packing Co. v. Atonio, 109 S. Ct. 2115 (1989) p. 383

Religious Displays and the First Amendment: County of Allegheny v. American Civil Liberties Union, 109 S. Ct. 3086 (1989) p. 399

Youth, Mental Retardation, and Capital Punishment: Penry v. Lynaugh, 109 S. Ct. 2934 (1989) and Stanford v. Kentucky, 109 S. Ct. 2969 (1989) p. 415